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As outcome measures for paediatric renal transplantation (PRT) in Sweden are generally reported in terms of graft and patient survival, we set out to describe the incidence of surgical and chemotherapeutic complications in this cohort. A systematic search of the medical records of all Swedish paediatric renal transplantation (PRT) performed between 1980 and 1997 at 15 paediatric transplant centres in Sweden was performed. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients (male:female ratio 2.8:1) were transplanted for end-stage renal disease. Mean follow-up was 5.5 years. The most common surgical complication was renal vein thrombosis, which occurred in 16% of patients. Acute rejection episodes were observed in 38% of patients. Haemorrhagic cystitis was diagnosed in 15% of patients, hypertension in 10% of patients and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 9% of patients. The incidence of all complications (excluding infection) was higher in the first year post-transplant (41% vs. 19% at 5 years post-transplant) and increased with time. There was a higher incidence of graft loss in the group of transplants performed for a malignant disease (40% vs. 12% at 5 years). The 5-year patient survival was 85% and the 5-year graft survival was 79%. Despite high post-transplantation mortality, high incidence of complications, graft loss 0b46394aab